Computer surveillance

Computer surveillance is the act of surveillance of people’s computer activities without their knowledge, by accessing the computer itself. Computers make excellent surveillance tools because they can do things without their owners’ knowledge or consent. Most computers have connections to networks, which can be exploited (through security cracking) to gain access to any confidential data that may be stored on the computer. Additionally, if someone is able to install certain types of software on a system, they can turn it into a surveillance device.

Surveillance techniques

Packet sniffing is the monitoring of data traffic into and out of a computer or network. A packet sniffer is computer software or computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic passing over a digital network or part of a network. As data streams flow across the network, the sniffer captures each packet and eventually decodes and analyzes its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. In some networks, data transmissions are sent only to the machine they are intended for, while in others, transmissions are broadcast to all machines connected, but processed only by the target computer. In the latter cases, it is possible to packet-sniff a computer by simply using another computer on the same network, without needing to place any software or equipment on the surveiled machine.

A surveillance program installed on a computer can search the contents of the hard drive for suspicious data, can monitor computer use, collect passwords, and even report back to its operator through the Internet connection. The most common, surely, are commercial spyware designed to collect marketing data. But, such programs are not limited merely to data collection; they can also use more malicious tactics, such as removing or modifying the data. These last are often called viruses, logic bombs, and, generally, malware.

Physical (hardware) surveillance devices (“bugs”) are also possible. A relatively simple bug is a keystroke logger implanted in the keyboard, perhaps broadcasting the key stroke sequence for pickup elsewhere. More sophisticated and more easily detected devices with access to more information can also, in theory, be inserted into, or onto, the computer itself. The disadvantage of hardware devices is that placement and retrieval requires physical entry into the place where the computer is stored, and thus almost entirely restricted (legally) to law enforcement agencies equipped with search warrants, except in situations in which such warrants are not required or may be kept secret.

It is possible to surveillance a computer from a distance, with only commercially available equipment, by receiving the radiation emitted by the CRT monitor. Even the high frequency noise emitted by a CPU includes information about the instructions being executed. More directly, researchers have also found that, for most computer keyboards, each key emits a slightly different noise when pressed. The differences are individually identifiable under some conditions, and so it’s possible to log key strokes without actually requiring logging software to run on the associated computer. Another method of surveillance of a computer use (key strokes, display images, etc) is video cameras, which are becoming small enough to be easily hidden from casual inspection in which case the surveillance can be surreptitious.

Installing surveillance software

The simplest way to place surveillance software on a computer is to gain entry to the place where the computer is stored and install it from a compact disc, floppy disk, or thumb drive. This method shares a disadvantage with hardware devices in that it requires physical access to the computer. A more difficult method is to package the software as a computer virus or Trojan horse. This tactic has the advantage of potentially subjecting multiple computers to surveillance. However, if the virus is allowed to proliferate, it will become a target of antivirus programs, which will allow the software’s removal from affected computers. Another method is to use security cracking to gain access to the computer over a network. An attacker can then install surveillance software remotely. Servers and computers with permanent broadband connections are most vulnerable to this type of attack.

Protection against surveillance

A firewall controls network access to a computer, offering some protection against crackers if properly configured. Unless it controls outbound communication as well, this offers only very limited protection against surveillance even when otherwise properly configured and operating. A highly attractive surveillance target may face highly skilled attempts at physical entry to install software or hardware. Thus, to be truly protected, such targets should be protected by measures such as reinforcing doors, windows and other potential entry points. Password protection can also be effective, particularly if provided by the BIOS during booting. Protection against remote surveillance of radiation emissions is more difficult. Some software has been designed to alter fonts to minimize radiation. The only certain measure at other than exorbitant cost is the purchase of a specially shielded monitor. In the extreme, use of Faraday cage techniques to prevent escape of electromagnetic radiation from equipment out of a physical volume is possible, though expensive.

Cables can be a serious security problem. They carry signals (e.g. printing and display devices, modems, etc) from a computer to other devices and from other devices (e.g. keyboards, mice, scanners, modems, etc) to a computer. They also carry signals between computers. Some cables can be remotely tapped without physical contact; some can be tapped with physical access to the cable, and so on. That cables are often installed in such a manner as to be invisible throughout much of their run (e.g. in plenum spaces, within walls, between floors, etc), they are more vulnerable to physical tapping than is commonly appreciated.

Wireless connections between computers, between computer components (e.g. keyboards, mice, printers, modems …) are an even larger security problem. Many wireless installations are improperly configured at installation and remain unchanged for long periods. This has inspired such things a war driving and Internet lists of insecure wireless access locations. Still worse in some sense, some wireless security protocols are fundamentally flawed, and so are insecure, even when ‘properly’ configured. As new wireless standards are developed with greater range and higher speeds, the requirement for more secure protocols and proper configuration of them will increase.

Other side channel attacks are possible and must be dealt with individually. For instance, power monitoring can provide information about computer use and power monitoring of the CPU itself can provide a good bit more. Filtering and conditioning of power lines can help as can physical isolation of hardware preventing installation of power monitoring devices for the CPU, disk drives, etc.

Challenges in Security Training after the PSAR Act

The Private Security Agencies (Regulation) Act, 2005

 By: Capt S B Tyagi, FISM, CSC

Scene before passing of PSAR:

The field of security is still in the early stages of growth and evolution in India.  Many changes have occurred over the past several years and surely that many more are in store in the years ahead. Even the term used to label the field, let alone, the definitions have undergone changes.  Are the security professionals involved with security, safety, and loss prevention or risk management?  The correct answer is “all the above”! As the field becomes more professional, the duties of the security practitioner become more complex and encompass a far wider range of responsibilities. No longer is security saddled with a night watchman’s image!

Now when Indian industries are ready for globalization, Indian markets opening up to multinational companies, and, when India is poised for the new millennium eager to become a superpower, there is a dire need to have the standardization in the subject of industrial security management so that industrialists and investors feel safe while opening up new ventures in India.

“The private security business employs more people than the police forces of all States combined and pays to the exchequer Rs. 10,000 crore by way of service tax, provident fund and contribution to the Employees’ State Insurance Corporation.” – The Hindu: 04.12.2006

It is not that there were no training needs for security professionals before PSAR. There were security agencies, there were contract security personnel and then there were proprietary security in many PSUs. Then there were DGR sponsored security agencies providing ex-servicemen. They all needed training!

Contrary to the common concept in India that the ex-armed force / police officers make good security executive, I realized first-hand that it is not so!  In fact these ex-officers do not have essential qualifications, experience and the attitude to be successful security executives. The experience, qualifications and the training these officers get are not desirable in the field of industrial security management. Therefore these security personnel need to unlearn more then the learning to come out of fixed mindset working only in confined and constrained environment and straight-jacketed hierarchical structure, their training needs are found to be very peculiar in which they had to mostly unlearn what was leaned in armed forces so that they freshly approach the subject of industrial security which is different to national security!

As proven by the IT sector, every sector creates it niche and also creates it own trained professionals! The NIIT certification course is not the one given by any university, nor was initially approved by the Government. Same is the case with ‘Aptech”.  Their quality of contents and training got the approval of the industry players and soon these certificate courses became eligibility criterion for employment in IT sector. Similarly the ‘Industrial Security Sector’ also created it demand of true security professionals and there supply of trained manpower became scarce. Few training institute got their act together and raised their training standards. All this was before passing of PSAR. There was still no bench-marking, there was no minimum syllabus nor were there any minimum training hours fixed. Mostly this was due to no regulatory authority and sector’s own internal co-ordination and self regulation failed to materialize.

What PSAR says about Training:

  1. Conditions for commencement of operation and engagement of supervisors-

 (2) Every private security agency shall ensure imparting of such training and skills to its private security guards and supervisors as may be prescribed: Provided that the person carrying on the business of private security agency, before the commencement of this Act, shall ensure the required training to its security guards and supervisors within a period of one year from the date of such commencement.

  1. Eligibility to be a private security guard-

(1)       (d) Has completed the prescribed security training successfully;

(e) Fulfils such physical standards as may be prescribed; and

(f) Satisfies such other conditions as may be prescribed.

  1. Conditions of license-

(1) The State Government may frame rules to prescribe the conditions on which license shall be granted under this Act and such conditions shall include requirements as to the training which the licensee is to undergo, details of the person or persons forming the agency, obligation as to the information to be provided from time to time to the Controlling Authority regarding any change in their address, change of management and also about any criminal charge made against them in the course of their performance of duties of the private security agency or as the case may be, a private security guard employed or engaged by them.

(2) The State Government may make provision in the rules to verify about imparting of required training by the private security agency under sub-section (2) of Section 9 and to review continuation or otherwise of license of such private security agency which may not have adhered to the condition of ensuring the required training.

  1. Cancellation and suspension of license-

(1) The Controlling Authority may cancel any license on any one or more of the following grounds, namely:-

(c) That the license holder has violated the provisions of this Act or the rules made there under or any of the conditions of the license;

  1. Register to be maintained by a private security agency-

(1) Every private security agency shall maintain a register containing—

(d) Such other particulars as may be prescribed.

  1. Framing of model rules for adoption by States- The Central Government may frame model rules in respect of all or any of the matters with respect to which the State Government may make rules under this Act.

What are the challenges for security training?

  • Training institutes of repute: accreditation by central / state governments
  • Training infrastructure: bench-marking
  • Training syllabus: elaborate training hour / subject basis
  • Training faculties: ranking system
  • Reading & reference material: Indian publication
  • Finances involved in separate training activities by Individual security agencies

Training institutes of repute: accreditation by central / state governments

“It is estimated that in the next five years, requirement of private security will increase to one crore security personnel which works out to be nine times the present strength of our Army. The private security industry today is operating in the most haphazard manner totally unregulated and suitable to meet the challenges. The manner in which most of the private security agencies function has become a matter of great concern. Many of these agencies conduct their operations without due care for verifying the antecedents of the personnel employed as private security guards and supervisors,” pointed out Major General Satbir Singh,

“The private security personnel are required to be highly skilled, capable of understanding and using the modem security equipments.” says Singh. – Gurgaon Plus – Digital 8.3.2006

There are many training institute which have mushroomed all over the country post PSAR. Some of them have capitalized the opportunity purely on commercial considerations since training has been given major emphasis in the Act. They will need more seasoning time to earn good repute. One notorious training institute in Deolali in fact issues only the certificate without actually imparting any training.

Training infrastructure: benchmarking

The Directorate General of Resettlement, Ministry of Defense, one government organization which has been conducting security training for ex-armed force officers wishing to start their career in industrial security has failed miserably in it’s attempts. These courses are conducted by sundry Training Institutes (?) with grandiose proclamation of being “International” when they do not have even one room office and classes are being held in evening hours in some local schools! Few other training institutes also conduct training in half-hearted manner.

All the training institutes need to have required training infrastructure including the training aids. It has to be kept in mind that the trainees can not be taught in ‘class room style’. All of them would be mature age, sufficient exposure to the industrial world and will also have some experience in industrial security. Understandably they may not be the brightest of the students as other-wise they would have had better career options but still they can be treated as fresh college students. For this purpose the training infrastructure must be appropriate most preferably multi-media based. Flip charts, overhead projectors etc. are no more suitable. Class rooms also must be suitable for circulation of the instructors and effortless interaction with the participants. They must also have wi-fy networking and suitable for LCD projection with good audio system.

Training syllabus: training hours / subjects-wise

There is hardly any standardization of the contents to be taught to the prospective security personnel in India. The Model Rule did a poor job in framing the training standards. The training syllabus drafted so far by certain states appears to be without practical approach and application of industrial experience. More then by the security professionals these appear to have been drafted by the police officers with foggy idea about security duties being synonymous to policing duties. This may not be the case and at least security professionals know it! In fact in one of the article recently published in ‘Security Today’, one of the retired IG has questioned the justification of keeping the subject of “Crowd Psychology and Techniques of crowd control” in the training syllabus of the security guards. Since it will take some time for ‘dust to settle down’, different training institutes will continue to have their own training syllabus.

The Directorate General of Resettlement, Ministry of Defense, one government organization which could have taken some initiative at-least for the security agencies run by ex-armed force personnel has woefully disappointed in this aspect. It could have but done nothing so far regarding finalizing the security training syllabus for ex-servicemen security guards under their sponsored security agencies.

The DGR made half-hearted attempts to specify the training aspects in their ‘Security Agency Guidelines’. Half hearted in the sense that though there was mention of specific training need in different sectors such as oil sector, mining sector etc, there was no syllabus or training hours specified! Further, there were few courses being run by DGR only to train the officers with the emphasis on how to run a security agency rather then becoming security professionals. The concerned portion from their web-site is reproduced –

TRAINING OF GUARDS, SUPERVISORS AND ASSISTANT/SECURITY OFFICERS
31

 

 

All security agencies have to ensure adequate training to the employees either on their own or through any other training institution.  DGR has empanelled institutes for training of Personnel below Officer Rank (PBOR). It is mandatory for all ESM to undergo a prescribed security and fire fighting orientation course. The Armed guards will be specially trained for the following:-

  • Trained in handling of arms and ammunition.
  • Specifically be instructed to shoot to restrain/injure fugitive or suspect with a view to enable civil police to take further action in the matter.
 

32

The security agencies are required to submit following information six monthly: –

Details of guards, supervisors, assistant security officers as per format laid down in Appendix ‘N’.

Details of training imparted with particulars of institute, date of training and nominal roll of personal training.

Training faculties: ranking system

As much there is dearth of reputed training institutes, there is lack of qualified trainers as well. It is misconception that those who had put on police or armed forces uniform in first career will automatically be suitable for career in industrial security. Similarly it is also wrong to assume that these persons will be god trainer too! Far from truth, these persons in fact are most unsuitable as trainer as they carry the knowledge, experience and understanding of different profession all to-gather! Simply, they travel with heavy baggage. Training needs different attitude and aptitude which not all security professionals possess. The world champions do not become good coaches as good coaches may not be champions ever!

The trainers need to have their annual ratings certified by the industry association in which International Council For Security & Safety Management can take lead. It already has impressive list of trainers and their training skills can be evaluated based on the parameter based honest and confidential feedback from the participants. The trainers need to read and write frequently and attend seminars such as the ones organized by ICISSM or other security associations. Star rating introduced for the trainers thus will improve their training skill and knowledge.  Such systems once introduced will gather wider acceptability and respectability for the trainers too and if not others they them selves must collect Training Impact Feedback.

 Reading & reference material: Indian publications

 While setting up the security department in my organization, and while planning the security arrangements at various project sites, I realized that there is not even a single book printed in India by the Indian author for Indian industrial conditions.  Several books by foreign authors are available in the library and in the market.  These authors had experience of different industries, operating in different conditions and their Indian relevance is nil.

It is not that Indian security professionals are less educated or intelligent. It is also not that Indian security professionals can not read or write. Still indeed, there are hardly any publication in India which could help guide the professionals and the amateurs alike on the subject of security management. There are few odd elementary books published in recent past by the retired police officers without any experience of industrial security.

There is immediate need to have a reference book with various aspects of security management discussed in detail. There is also need to have “Hand Book for Security Professionals” and “Model Security Manual” based on which specific security needs can be addressed. In this direction IISSM once again can take lead. I am sure these efforts will not only put IISSM as undisputed leader of the Protection Industry, it will generate revenue too sine there is market ready for these publications.

Conclusion

Above mentioned are the proximate challenges of the security training post PSRA and needs of training institutes, training manuals and trainers must be immediately addressed by the industry itself.

Need is within, and, within is the response!

HSE & Security as Composite Function

captsbtyagi_1427178618_69

Capt SB Tyagi

Security is part of productivity and profitability

Organizations do not exist just to be secure or safe. They exist to produce or provide goods or services. Customers care about the goods or service—that is why they engage with the organization in the first place (Even where security actually is the goal of an organization it is provided as a complement to another product or activity—protection of property, transportation, etc.). This means that an understanding of the fundamental conditions for security and safety begins with an understanding of the balance between production and protection. Humans normally strive for an acceptable (rather than ideal) level of performance in relation to their goals and resources and to not process all available data is a part of this resource-saving strategy. Consequently, action is guided by an intuitive and implicit trade-off between cost and efficiency or between thoroughness and efficiency.

Security now cannot be seen as ‘cost center’ needing budgets for non-productive systems and plans. Security must not be seen as burden which is evil yet essential! There are issues such as insurance, legal compliances, pressure from stakeholders etc. that meager budget is allocated to security department. Mostly security professionals are to be blamed for this misconception.

It is good security that guarantees secured, hassle-free congenial work atmosphere where all production, operation and maintenance or marketing activities are conducted smoothly without fear or danger. No one can work; forget the best performance, if there are chances of attack by miscreants, theft of costly inventory or law-and –order problems inside the premises or at work-floor areas. loss-prevention, fire prevention & fire-fighting, safety   and  the  safe   work environment  is related  field with the security and that all these put together effect  productivity  and  profitability of  the organization.

Good security means good production, which in turn means higher profit!

Synergies between Safety and Security

The synergy between safety and security is very strong even when it is not deliberately pursued. The overall protection of a facility can be very effective when the design features of safety and security measures takes into account the synergy between safety and security. Further mitigation measures can be conducted on-site and/or off-site. These measures are synergetic, however, in case of a security incident, additional measures, focused on prevention of further malicious acts by adversaries, may be required.

For many critical facilities, such as nuclear power plants and large defence and research facilities, the protection of the facility against sabotage will also provide protection against theft of the associated critical materials. Theft of such materials may result in ‘unacceptable consequences outside the facility.

Safety-Security Interface Challenges

Different Paradigm: One of the main differences between safety and security is the type of assessment. Safety assesses natural and unintentional man-induced Hazard to determine how the design, procedures or mitigation measures should be made or implemented in order to maintain safe operation of the facility. On the other hand, Security assesses a ‘Threat’ in order to determine what physical protection is needed or what counter-measures or response should be in place.  Hazard assessment is basically a technical issue and requires professional expertise. Threat assessment requires different set of specialized knowledge such as intelligence, investigation skills and expertise.

Another important difference between the two paradigms is use of probabilistic tools in safety in modelling equipment failures and human errors and in the risk informed decision making. Security specialists prefer to use deterministic approach in developing a threat scenarios and counter measures. However, the use of probabilistic approach in security for the assessment of threats is possible but not a common practice in the security community.

Transparency versus Confidentiality: Safety requires high degree of transparency. The most important pillar of implementing safety culture and keeping safe operation of facilities is sharing experience, information and engineering solutions between stakeholders. The public needs assurances that facilities are well protected therefore the transparency is required in sharing and making public some security information. In the other hand, a large part of the security information may be used by adversaries to circumvent security systems and security measures; therefore, this part of security information must be protected and shared only on the need to know basis.

The silos mentality: The silos mentality represents a real challenge for safety and security interfaces. Two factors may be considered as the basis of the silos mentality. The first one is due to the fact that the Management have the full responsibility of safety while security is a shared responsibility where threat assessment and protection against sabotage involves state organizations and in some cases, the security is largely under state responsibility. The second factor is due to the fact that traditionally, safety security specialists have worked in isolation. The challenge represented by these two factors could be resolved by having the same regulatory authority responsible of regulating safety and security. This is consistent with the concept of 3S (Safety, Security and Safeguards) that some countries implement with success.

Security and Safety Complement each other

Security and safety share fundamentally important features as operational activities with the goal to protect people, property, and the smooth economical functioning of organizations and society. In safety-critical industries, safety is seen as the positive outcome of management of problems and trade-offs that are rooted in systems’ complexity, goal interaction, and resource limitations. This perspective has led safety research to shift focus and go beyond individual acts and move to systematic aspects of human, technological, and organizational performance. It involves dealing with problems connected to regulations and standardized procedures, technology and automation, and efforts to understand the impact of communication, group dynamics, leadership, and culture on safety.

In spite of distinct differences in the nature of threats (intentional / unintentional), there are many areas (use of standardized procedures, human factors training, and modelling for increased understanding of adverse events) where knowledge and experiences from safety operations can fruitfully spill over to security. To establish cooperation between these two fields, for example on regulatory and procedural development, training and simulation, as well as operational evaluation, would be to produce synergies not yet known today.

Following approach is suggested –

In-depth Analysis of Security & Safety Functions

Security and safety are concepts that share important features; they both involve the risk of occurrence of events with consequences that may range from trivial to disastrous. Yet as concepts they are also different, with security relating to intentional acts by individuals and safety relating to events caused by unintended consequences of a combination of a host of factors. In safety-critical industries, such as aviation, petroleum, chemical and nuclear industry safety is seen as the positive outcome of management of problems and trade-offs that are rooted in systems’ complexity, goal interaction, and resource limitations. This perspective has led safety research to shift focus and go beyond individual acts (such as “human error”) and move to systematic aspects of human, technological, and organizational performance. It involves dealing with problems connected to regulations and standardized procedures, technology and automation, and efforts to understand the impact of communication, group dynamics, leadership, and culture on safety.

The advancement of security issues in a complex modern society should be able to benefit from the knowledge gained through safety industry operations in the field of Human Factors. This knowledge has the potential to make security more safe (for those who design and implement security measures as well as for those who are subjected to them) and effective (in terms of time and resources spent on security measures).

Role of Security in Contingency Planning

The dictionary definition of contingency plan is:

Plans or measures made to handle a particular situation, should it arise.

From this it is possible to infer that every conceivable situation should have a contingency plan. This is not a practical inference and contingency plans, whilst tailored to specific situations, must have some element of flexibility and scope for generalization. The basic framework for a contingency plan should contain provision for – ­

  • Containing the emergency
  • Protection of lives and property
  • Re-establishing normal operations as soon as possible
  • Limiting the “after effects” of the   emergency
  • Meeting legal requirements

Since any contingency plan involves coordinated activities from various quarters, the contingency plan should provide for the involvement of:

  • The Security Team
  • The workforce
  • Safety and Environmental Specialists
  • Emergency Services
  • Other companies within the area or within the industry
  • Local Authorities
  • The Public

Security Department plays very important functions in any contingency planning. When an emergency arises there is a need to evacuate personnel. Depending on the premises and the – ­situation this can be a simple or a complex operation. In case of evacuation, the coordination of Security and Safety is very necessary as one executes the evacuation plan as per the requirement of other! It is Safety Department which will decide the nature and location of evacuation but it is Security Department which will execute the evacuation exercise with effective traffic management, head counting and verifying that evacuees are moved to safe locations in shortest time. In general the situations are:

  • Evacuation of persons from their place of work. This is straightforward but should be well drilled.
  • Evacuation of staff and customers from a retail store or similar premises. Provided the staff is well trained there should be little trouble but provision must be made for the customers who may be elderly, sick, disabled, prone to panic, very young etc. Since fire- fighting team will be busy and Safety Officials will be supervising the entire evacuation drill, it becomes duty of security in-charge to oversee and execute the evacuation drill.
  • Evacuation from Institutions. Staff in these situations is trained to deal with the type of inmate involved and generally the contingency plan will reflect this. Security team will have role such as area cordoning, area search and traffic management.
  • Evacuation from places which are open to the public. There are difficulties to categories but would include places of worship, museums, public open spaces such as bus stands and railway stations, beaches etc. Generally members of the public would exceed the numbers of staff present if, indeed, there were any staff present at all. In such places successful evacuation depends on good communication. Panic can easily occur and the casualty level from an ill-conceived evacuation can potentially exceed the casualty rate of the incident itself. Head of Security does the effective liaison and coordination with public authorities.

Involvement of Security in Evacuation

There are two broad causes of evacuation.

  • Fire or similar tangible incident – exclusively handled by Fire and Safety Team
  • Bomb threat or other intangible incident – handled by Security Team initially, will have potential where Fire & Safety Team steps in eventually

Each has certain characteristics that are not compatible and one plan cannot be used for both. The contingency plan will cater for both types of evacuation as well as a partial evacuation. Re- entry following evacuation of a building should also be part of the contingency plan.

Here also Security Team has very important role to play and that is of access control which ensures that only those are permitted in which have reasons to be inside as resuming the operation is most critical phase of business resumption. An evacuation is ordered when there is an immediate danger. Sometimes this danger is not readily apparent to the evacuees and therefore degrees of danger must be established.

Defined Role of Security during Fire evacuation

One requirement of the sound safety drill is that no person should have to move towards a fire in order to evacuate. To this end, escape routes must be planned and routed, directly to the open air. In a fire evacuation the Security Staff will have additional duties. Because of the evacuation additional exits will be used. These exits are often left open after evacuation and, depending on the nature of the business, may attract the opportunist thief. Part of the contingency plan should involve the perimeter security of the building or plant that may have been breached. One member of the Security staff should be nominated as Fire Brigade Escort. This duty is particularly important in a large industrial complex. The officer detailed should have the following information available:

  • Where the fire is situated.
  • Details of best route to the fire.
  • Details of any special hazards e.g. unprotected trenches or manholes etc., scaffolding, broken clown vehicles, construction work.
  • Location of water supplies, risers, inlets etc.
  • He should also be in possession of any keys needed to access the area.
  • Details of any persons not accounted for.

Relation to Regulation, Standardization, and Procedures

Economic theories of human behavior provide us with some understanding of its potential problems with regards to security and safety. A seemingly reasonable response would then be to try to control human behavior. This means using laws, regulations, standardized procedures, manuals, guidelines, and other similar means to increase the reliability of human behavior and limit the risk it may induce in systems. Industry has a long tradition of negotiating regulatory frameworks that can ensure a high minimum level of safety. Manufacturing and maintenance, medical and other requirements for employees, selection and training as well as practically all operational aspects are guided by extensive regulation and enforced by nodal authorities. The regulations stipulate that all operators also should have standard operational procedures (SOPs) for all aspects of operation. These standard operating procedures must be regarded by all employees as the main source of safety and security operations. The approach of merging the function of HSE&S will have following cyclic activities –

Summary

Even British Safety Council advocates the comprehensive role and responsibilities clubbed as HSE & S. Their approach is that even when there are legal compliance issues and pre-qualifications of Safety Officers and Fire Officers are mandatory, the leadership of the composite function can be from either mainstream function that is from either security, safety or fire-fighting which all are with minimum qualifications and subsequent hands-on experience and professional practice. The subject of Environment is heavy on study of the subject, formulation of policies and co-ordination and auditing and can be given as additional responsibility to professional from aforementioned stream.

Extensive experience in the chemical industry with on-site emergency planning has provided the need and value of rehearsal of emergency procedures. The organization responsible for developing off-site plan should also test its arrangements in conjunction with on-site exercise.  Table – top rehearsals have proved successful in such cases although often requiring sufficient elements of reality in the exercise. Practice Drill (Please don’t call it Mock Drill!) must be conducted with all the sincerity and importance.

The Government of India had recently moved in the direction of merging the HSS&E functions when it rolled-out its Safety and Security Rating System. It had included 19 Key Performance Indicators for security and safety in chemical plants and applicable to petrochemical, and petroleum industries also. These KPIs are to be used as an assessment tool for rating the Chemical organizations in respect of the practices followed by them. The document envisages a star rating system to grade the chemical plants according to their performance. The government’s thrust in this direction indicates that serious thoughts are given in accepting security and safety as composite functions and inclusion of health and environment will be a logical conclusion. Every member of the Industry needs to be ready to respond to the demands of the safe practices and should be equally ready to face the contingencies.

Goethe has once said, “Let everyone sweep its doorsteps and world will be a cleaner place.”

“How to Maximize Security with Existing Infrastructure”

Capt SB Tyagi

The environment, in which the Security operates, has changed beyondUntitled recognition. The ease of travel, more open borders and digital technologies have globalized criminality, making it far harder to contain and prosecute. Terrorism, of course, is notoriously borderless. But globalization has also massively expanded opportunities for organized crime. And technology, by spawning new kinds of crime while facilitating the traditional variety, is helping lawbreakers become ever bolder and more difficult to track down.

The shelf-life of security technology and the functional life of security systems have been severely challenged by fast paced innovations and newer technology. Today’s technology is on the verge of obsolescence and yesterday’s technology is obsolete already! The investment on security systems and measures are directly linked to ROI and the operational life of the security systems.

One of the biggest challenges enterprise and public sector organizations face is in leveraging existing infrastructure like video surveillance to deliver more value, better situational awareness, and faster threat recognition and response.  We need to gain a better understanding of today’s challenges and best practices in video surveillance and physical security, and how they can maximize existing security assets while minimizing risk.

We need to learn how the combination of PSIM, behaviour recognition technology and video surveillance can improve existing security infrastructure as well as gain insight on how data can be analysed for dramatic improvements in situational awareness, response and resolution.

To maximise the security with existing infrastructure, following are the essential ingredients –

  • Thinking out-of-the-box!
  • Innovation and application
  • Know your inventory
  • Know your technology
  • PSIM
  • Predict and improve through analytics
  • Data storage – cloud computing
  • Trust the team
  • Optimize ways of working
  • Enhance collaboration
  • Proactively manage changes

Physical security information management (PSIM) is a category of software that provides a platform and applications created by middleware developers, designed to integrate multiple unconnected security applications and devices and control them through one comprehensive user interface. It collects and correlates events from existing disparate security devices and information systems (video, access control, sensors, analytics, networks, building systems, etc.) to empower personnel to identify and proactively resolve situations. PSIM integration enables numerous organisational benefits, including increased control, improved situation awareness and management reporting. Ultimately, these solutions allow organisations to reduce costs through improved efficiency and to improve security through increased intelligence.

A complete PSIM software system has six key capabilities:

  • Collection: Device management independent software collects data from any number of disparate security devices or systems.
  • Analysis: The system analyses and correlates the data, events, and alarms, to identify the real situations and their priority.
  • Verification: PSIM software presents the relevant situation information in a quick and easily-digestible format for an operator to verify the situation.
  • Resolution: The system provides Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), step-by-step instructions based on best practices and an organization’s policies, and tools to resolve the situation.
  • Reporting: The PSIM software tracks all the information and steps for compliance reporting, training and potentially, in-depth investigative analysis.
  • Audit trail: The PSIM also monitors how each operator interacts with the system, tracks any manual changes to security systems and calculates reaction times for each event.

A key differential between PSIM based integration and other forms of physical security system integration is the ability for a PSIM platform to connect systems at a data level, contrasting other forms of integration which interface a limited number of products. PSIM allows use of open technologies which are compatible with a large number of manufacturers. These PSIM products offer more opportunities for expansion and can reduce implementation costs through greater use of existing equipment. PSIM solutions in general are deployed to centralize information to single or multiple control hubs. These are referred to as control rooms or command and control centres. Security systems typically integrated into a PSIM solution include;

  • Access control systems
  • CCTV
  • Fire detection
  • Video wall
  • Intrusion detection system
  • Perimeter Intrusion detection system
  • Radar based detection
  • GIS mapping systems
  • Intercom
  • Automated barriers & bollards
  • Building management systems
  • Lighting control system
  • Power Monitoring System

Behavioral Recognition Systems: It is Behavioural Analytics technology that analyses video content by imitating learning and memory processes of the human brain. This fully automated scalable surveillance technology is different from all Video Analytics systems since it is able to autonomously detect abnormal behaviour in real time, without the need of human intervention. The computer software utilizes the behavioural Analytics technology, which monitors a scene through each camera separately and learns on behaviour. This system combines computer vision with cognitive machine learning processes, and it develops patterns for different classes of objects. These patterns later become rules for the system that autonomously detaches normal situations from those that can be possible threats.

Functionality

  • Reason-based system: Unlike the traditional, rule-based system, Behavioral Analytics is the reason-based system that enables a machine to learn what is abnormal, without human pre-programing. By decreasing the number of alerts, it helps security officers to perceive more threats in real time.
  • The Entire Field of View Analysis: BRS analyses the total field of view through each video camera in closed-circuit television system, despite certain difficulties, types of equipment or specific conditions on a scene.
  • Continuous Learning and Modifying: Unlike the traditional video surveillance rules-based technology, BRS permanently learns and registers when some changes occur, so any on-going programing is not necessary.
  • Open Standards: It is the “open standards” system which enables it to cooperate easily with different infrastructures, both the existing ones and the new ones. This video surveillance technology has been deployed globally across critical infrastructure facilities, intelligence agency applications, urban areas, seaports, financial institutions and others.
  • Easy Installation: BRS needs maximum of a few days for the complete hardware and software installation, regardless of the number of cameras that need to be connected into the system and without any changes on the client’s site.

Moving your Infrastructure to the Cloud:

In all probability, the CCTV system needs largest storage space. The need increases with advent of HD cameras. A typical CCTV System with 140 cameras of fixed focal and 10 DH cameras, the storage needed for 30 days recording with reduced frame rate is 20 TB approximately. With the number of HD cameras and the types of video analytics increase, the storage space goes for quantum leap! In such scenario the cloud computing is better alternative.

With Cloud Computing becoming more widely utilized, it is important for organizations to understand ways to maximize benefits and minimize risks of a move to the cloud. Buyers need to appreciate that assessing individual providers is critical to the success of Cloud Computing programs.

How to Finish IS in India even before it enters?

As the Shia-Sunni mutual bombings and state-led events in Pakistan, Syria, Sudan, Yemen and several other countries have exposed, the poison once aimed at the so-called “non-believers” is threatening to become a pandemic affecting Islamic nations themselves, in addition to ballooning into a global threat. Coptic Christians, Yazidis, Kurds and Shias have been facing the brunt of IS. Countries like Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Jordan, Kurdistan, Turkey and Kuwait face proximate threats from IS. The countries under threats of attack by IS are US, UK, France, Australia, Canada, Egypt, Russia and India.

India faced with rising Muslim population projected to gain majority status in 2050, is declared battle ground for Muslim jihadis claiming the ‘Gazba-e-Hind’ – the last Muslim crusade before world dominance will be fought in India. India is also the largest country with highest population of Kafirs (non-believers) who need to be defeated to bring ‘Khurasan’ to reality. The term ‘Khurasan’ refers to a region that encompasses large areas of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Iran. Jihadists consider the Khurasan to be the area where they will inflict the first defeat against their enemies in the Muslim version of Armageddon. The final battle is to take place in the Levant – Israel, Syria, and Lebanon.”

Till date ISIS:

  • has a territory bigger than Great Britain;
  • have about 8-10 million people with them;
  • has launched over 3000 attacks so far.
  • Abu Bakr Nazi’s book on “Management of Savagery” (2004) offers the role model for the ISIS.

Footprints of IS are seen and footsteps heard in our neighbourhood. Entire countries security forces and agencies involved in maintaining law and order were disturbed last year when few youth from Maharashtra were reported to have been in Syria and involved in IS activities. It was matter of big concern last year when few Indian young men joined IS in faraway shores. Now what is more worrisome is about attempted entry of IS.

Bangladesh has seen footprints of IS and even when its government disagrees, it is clear to the world that not only its elements are present in Bangladeshi soil, they have striking capabilities too. The Islamic State group now claims to have appointed a leader in Bangladesh as its fighters continue to threaten attacks across the globe. The claim comes in the latest release of Dabiq, an online magazine published by the militant group’s propaganda wing. Militants also claimed responsibility for downing a Russian airliner over Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula on Oct. 31. Both attacks, for which ISIS claimed responsibility, were seen to signal that the group based in Syria and Iraq is planning attacks around the globe even as it has lost territory in the Middle East in recent months.(1)

Pakistan is breeding ground of generic muslim terrorists and all the indications are that IS is very much active in Pak with strategic partnership of local jihadi groups. In September 2014, Faridullah Khan, a DW correspondent in the Pakistani city of Peshawar, confirmed the IS was looking to gain influence in the nuclear-armed Islamic country. IS has made an appeal to the local population to support its “struggle for the establishment of an Islamic caliphate.” A former Pakistani Taliban spokesman Shahidullah Shahid can be viewed announcing pledges of allegiance to IS on behalf of leaders of various extremist groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan. (2)

Islamic State’s Sri Lankan outreach is well documented. In recent months, there has been growing evidence of actual and attempted outreach by the Islamic State into Sri Lanka, presently struggling to recover from a three-decade long conflict between its Sinhalese and Tamil ethnic groups. One of the most significant developments was the news of two Sri Lankan nationals fighting with the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq. One such report, in July 2015, indicated that a Sri Lankan national Mohamed Muhsin Sharfaz Nilam (a.k.a. “Abu Shurayh al-Silani”), was killed while fighting in Raqqa, Syria. Many fast shifting situations in Sri Lanka provide an opportunity for Islamic State, which has been attempting to spread its influence beyond its base in Iraq and Syria. (3)

In Myanmar, experts have warned that Islamic State may now be recruiting fighters and families from the persecuted community of Rohingya Muslims fleeing Myanmar, as the terror group looks to expand into wider Asia. Myanmar has tightened security in its border areas following reports that several members of the Islamic State have travelled through neighbouring Thailand. (4)

What Experts Suggest on Eradicating IS in India

KPS Gill:

  • The overall security architecture will have to be urgently strengthened.
  • Approach at psychological or philosophical levels will not do.
  • Presence of positive forces needed in social media.

Arif Mohammad Khan:

  • Was hopeful that ISIS movement would not last.
  • Arab World will have to be firmly told that violence cannot be supported by lies and that to curb the ISIS was beyond our capability.
  • ISIS was only the symptom. The disease will have to be treated.
  • Ideology of IS needs to be challenged.
  • It is time for revolution in Islam.
  • Muslims must remove bad interpretation of Islam.
  • Interpretation of Jihad in Islam must change.

 Prakash Singh:

  • The ISIS ideology will have to be challenged – the central dictum.
  • Remove Islam from time warp.
  • Grand Imam believed the ISIS was making wrong interpretation of Islam.
  • It would be good to influence the Urdu Press against the ISIS.
  • Need to encourage moderate Muslims, who are living in a state of denial.
  • Educating the Muslims – reforming the Madrassa education is long overdue.
  • To try de-radicalisation programme on the Austrian model.
  • To strengthen the security architecture, followed up by adequate legal framework.
  • Revamping of security architecture needed to face IS threats.
  • Modernization and strengthening police force.

P C Haldar:

  • The de-radicalisation programme will have to be very carefully chalked out. Otherwise, it may boomerang. That is, counter-de-radicalisation will also have to be planned.
  • While strengthening the security architecture, the issue of police-public ratio will have to be duly taken care. That is, there has to be some kind of perspective planning.
  • ISIS have already raised enormous amount of money.
  • Need to use social media which the ISIS has been very fruitfully doing.
  • Encourage moderate Muslims.

More Suggestions:

  • Suitable course lessons for schools.
  • Need for adopting the Uniform Civic Code.
  • Moderate Muslims are not ready to come forward. They have to be brought on Board.
  • Need to check/control free flow of finance to the ISIS jihadis.
  • Input from the organisers:
    • A 32-page Urdu document recovered in a Pak village reconfirmed that the ISIS wanted to trigger off a movement from the Indian soil aiming at the end of the world.
    • The primary objective of the Seminar was not to fight violence with violence but to fight off the ISIS both at the psychological and philosophical level.
    • There was now a great need for getting educated Muslim ladies in this movement to counter the ISIS. That it would be a long term affair.
    • For tackling the problem, it would be a good strategy to work in small areas first and then expand.
    • More Seminars will need to be organised at different places at reasonable intervals.
  1. http://www.ibtimes.com/isis-spreads-bangladesh-islamic-state-group-claims-new-leader-appointed-south-asia-2196504
  2. http://www.dw.com/en/are-pakistani-militants-moving-closer-to-islamic-state/a-17899184
  3. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/tm/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=44850&cHash=7dcc9fc5e355d212d895ce94fdfb24dc#.Vm6fLNJ94dU
  4. http://yangon.coconuts.co/2015/12/10/myanmar-tightens-border-security-wake-islamic-state-threat-thailand

How to eliminate Islamic State?

It was jokingly said that whereas all the countries have armies, it is Pakistani Army which has got the country. Soon same expression underwent change and in reference to Nepal it was said that, ‘all terrorists aspire to rule a Nation whereas now ruling is to nationalize the terrorists in Nepal! The Maoists were not even comfortable in changing role they were to play from terrorists to ruling outfit that something dramatic has happened in Syria and Iraq!

ISIS MapThe Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) declared the areas it occupies in Iraq and Syria as a new Islamic state, removing Iraq and the Levant from its name. ISIS declared its territories a new Islamic state with ‘restoration of caliphate’ in Middle East. It is now known as Islamic State of Khorasan. The Militants named Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as Caliph in a move representing ‘new era of international jihad’. The announcement will see ISIS now simply refer to itself as ‘The Islamic State’.

In recent fast paced advances, IS has captured large areas of western and northern Iraq and for two years has held parts of Syria, imposing a harsh interpretation of Islamic law and in many cases, killing large numbers of opposition Shia Muslims.

The Israeli Prime Minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, has voiced support for Kurdish statehood, taking a position that appears to clash with the US preference to keep sectarian war-torn Iraq united. Netanyahu has called for the establishment of an independent Kurdistan as part of a broader alliance with moderate forces across the region, adding that Israel would have to maintain a long-term military presence in the West Bank even after any future peace agreement with the Palestinians. This posturing will lead to more deaths and destruction.

We have much more mayhem and madness to witness before order is restored in the region!

Islamic Concept of Nationhood

Attempt is to highlight and analyse the fast expansion of IS and the real explanation lies at the heart of Islam, which combined spiritual and temporal power in one hand. One can only preface any attempt further by saying that, ‘It’s Not The “Occupation” – It’s Islam’, while forcefully exposing certain aspects of Islam, not seen generally. All need to understand the malaise of violence that is clearly embedded in Islam as a religion.

But all the empty words about the “Occupation” and the “Cycle of Violence,” the invocation of a peaceful solution that is always about to arrive, but never does, and the maps that cede more territory to terrorists are addressing a problem that doesn’t exist.

  • It’s not about physical territory. It’s about spiritual territory. It’s not about nationalism. It’s about Islamism.

This point is the corner stone of activities of ‘Hamas’, the terror group that is not a Palestinian nationalist organization, though it occasionally plays the part. Its charter begins with Allah and ends with Allah. Article Five of its charter states that the group extends to “wherever on earth there are Muslims, who adopt Islam as their way of life.” Its goal is to create an Islamic state. Everything else is secondary.

How much India is affected?

According to a saying attributed to Prophet Muhammad, the “End of Time” battles would start after victory in the East, which then meant Khurasan. Geographically, Khurasan included part of modern Iran, Central Asia, Afghanistan and parts of Pakistan. To these, ISIS has included not only Iraq, parts of Syria as well as Gujarat in India.

India faced with rising Muslim population projected to gain majority status in 2050, is declared battle ground for Muslim jihadis claiming the ‘Gazba-e-Hind’ – the last Muslim crusade before world dominance will be fought in India. India is also the largest country with highest population of Kafirs (non-believers) who need to be defeated to bring ‘Khurasan’ to reality. The term ‘Khurasan’ refers to a region that encompasses large areas of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Iran. Jihadists consider the Khurasan to be the area where they will inflict the first defeat against their enemies in the Muslim version of Armageddon. The final battle is to take place in the Levant – Israel, Syria, and Lebanon.”

Footprints of IS are seen and footsteps heard in our neighbourhood. Entire countries security forces and agencies involved in maintaining law and order were disturbed last year when few youth from Maharashtra were reported to have been in Syria and involved in IS activities. It was matter of big concern last year when few Indian young men joined IS in faraway shores. Now what is more worrisome is about attempted entry of IS.

Bangladesh has seen footprints of IS and even when its government disagrees, it is clear to the world that not only its elements are present in Bangladeshi soil, they have striking capabilities too. The Islamic State group now claims to have appointed a leader in Bangladesh as its fighters continue to threaten attacks across the globe. The claim comes in the latest release of Dabiq, an online magazine published by the militant group’s propaganda wing. Militants also claimed responsibility for downing a Russian airliner over Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula on Oct. 31. Both attacks, for which ISIS claimed responsibility, were seen to signal that the group based in Syria and Iraq is planning attacks around the globe even as it has lost territory in the Middle East in recent months.(1)

Pakistan is breeding ground of generic muslim terrorists and all the indications are that IS is very much active in Pak with strategic partnership of local jihadi groups. In September 2014, Faridullah Khan, a DW correspondent in the Pakistani city of Peshawar, confirmed the IS was looking to gain influence in the nuclear-armed Islamic country. IS has made an appeal to the local population to support its “struggle for the establishment of an Islamic caliphate.” A former Pakistani Taliban spokesman Shahidullah Shahid can be viewed announcing pledges of allegiance to IS on behalf of leaders of various extremist groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan. (2)

Islamic State’s Sri Lankan outreach is well documented. In recent months, there has been growing evidence of actual and attempted outreach by the Islamic State into Sri Lanka, presently struggling to recover from a three-decade long conflict between its Sinhalese and Tamil ethnic groups. One of the most significant developments was the news of two Sri Lankan nationals fighting with the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq. One such report, in July 2015, indicated that a Sri Lankan national Mohamed Muhsin Sharfaz Nilam (a.k.a. “Abu Shurayh al-Silani”), was killed while fighting in Raqqa, Syria. Many fast shifting situations in Sri Lanka provide an opportunity for Islamic State, which has been attempting to spread its influence beyond its base in Iraq and Syria. (3)

In Myanmar, experts have warned that Islamic State may now be recruiting fighters and families from the persecuted community of Rohingya Muslims fleeing Myanmar, as the terror group looks to expand into wider Asia. Myanmar has tightened security in its border areas following reports that several members of the Islamic State have travelled through neighbouring Thailand. (4)

Solutions to IS Menace

There are two ways of looking at the worldwide plague of Muslim terrorism. One is to treat every Islamic conflict with Christians, Jews, Buddhists, Hindus and a dozen other religions as being due to some local political grievance of recent vintage. The other is to understand them as local expressions of a historical religious war and the continuation of the wave of conquests that made Islam into a worldwide religion.

There is no political solution to a supremacist conflict. Solutions begin with truth. The truth is that Islamic violence is not recent or exceptional. The murder of Jews by Muslims, whether in Israel or Belgium, is not any different than the Muslim butchery of Christians. Hindus, Buddhists and even minority Muslim splinter faiths. These conflicts cannot be resolved through appeasement. They can only be addressed through resistance.

There can be no peace until Muslims understand that the Mohammedan conquests were a genocidal atrocity that destroyed entire peoples and cultures. Only then can they honestly condemn IS for trying to repeat those atrocities. And only then will they be able to live in peace with the rest of the world.

The world cannot do anything about this, and especially by demonizing Islam – as the West sometimes tend to do. This is an issue internal to Islam and will be addressed only when enough Muslims begin to see the dangers to themselves and their faith from this”, and the current one, appears striking. The current report states, “It is the conquerors who must come to terms with the horrors that they have inflicted through a campaign of colonialism and ethnic cleansing and seek the forgiveness of their victims”.

One section of experts on the subject advocates that these conflicts cannot be resolved through appeasement and can be addressed only through resistance. Therefore, we are faced with what action, if at all, lies with us. We do not see, notwithstanding a very limited few among them exposing the faultiness of Islam, realistic possibility of any significant percentage among those enlightened section in that community, prevailing upon their brethren to think out of the boundary laid-down by their Prophet.

The big powers, which had formally called off the “war on terror” and started addressing the Islamic insurgents as only extremists, have not yet appeared in the scene effectively – specially USA – may be because of the lessons learnt in Afghanistan or Iraq. Some are also busy in managing their home turf, having an ostrich-eye view all these years.

But, the situation unfolding here now, with The Islamic State having called upon all Muslims to join them, is too close to we in India, with Gujarat being specifically included in their scheme, to ignore its full significance and ramifications We do hope security strategists, both in the government and outside, are breaking their heads over this.

Following needs serious consideration and quick implementation –

  • Presence of positive forces needed in social media. Need to use social media which the ISIS has been very fruitfully doing.
  • Arab World will have to be firmly told that violence cannot be supported by lies and that to curb the ISIS was beyond our capability.
  • Ideology of IS needs to be challenged and it is time for revolution in Islam.
  • Muslims must remove bad interpretation of Islam and interpretation of Jihad in Islam must change. For this remove Islam from time warp.
  • It would be good to influence the Urdu Press against the ISIS.
  • Need to encourage moderate Muslims, who are living in a state of denial.
  • Educating the Muslims – reforming the Madrassa education is long overdue.
  • To try de-radicalisation programme on the Austrian model.
  • To strengthen the security architecture, followed up by adequate legal framework. Also revamping of security architecture is needed to face IS threats.
  • Modernization and strengthening police force.
  • The de-radicalisation programme will have to be very carefully chalked out. Otherwise, it may boomerang. That is, counter-de-radicalisation will also have to be planned.
    • Need to check/control free flow of finance to the ISIS jihadis.
    • There was now a great need for getting educated Muslim ladies in this movement to counter the ISIS. That it would be a long term affair.
    • For tackling the problem, it would be a good strategy to work in small areas first and then expand.

Perhaps, there is need for another prophet to emerge! Or, will the “true believers” continue to prove their nuisance for a longer period of time? Whatever be their ability, they cannot ultimately prevail. We Believe In That!

The seriousness of the situation has to be taken to the members of the public, not only in the cities but to the rural areas as well. Sad to say but it is true more patriots are found in villages than among educated elites and so-called intellectuals. In any case and on the whole, public opinion has to be built up to remain on the look-out for already identified/banned or not, outfits, spies and fifth columnists in all walks of life as also the “sleeper cells” suddenly becoming active. Coming times, friends, will be trying. We should not be found wanting in our response. We have been warned!

  1. http://www.ibtimes.com/isis-spreads-bangladesh-islamic-state-group-claims-new-leader-appointed-south-asia-2196504
  2. http://www.dw.com/en/are-pakistani-militants-moving-closer-to-islamic-state/a-17899184
  3. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/tm/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=44850&cHash=7dcc9fc5e355d212d895ce94fdfb24dc#.Vm6fLNJ94dU
  4. http://yangon.coconuts.co/2015/12/10/myanmar-tightens-border-security-wake-islamic-state-threat-thailand
DSC_06678 Edited
Capt SB Tyagi, COAS’CC

Capt. SB Tyagi holds Masters’ degrees in Philosophy, Sociology, Defence Studies & Political Science beside B.Sc. and LLB. He also holds master’s degree in Business Administration and post graduate diplomas in Business Administration, Personnel Management & Industrial Relations and Safety & Security Management. He had short but outstanding tenure in Indian Army where he was awarded Commendations by Chief of The Army Staff twice for devotion to duty and exemplary performance.

He has thirty three years’ experience (including Army) in the field of industrial security management. He has been regular faculty in Management Institutes. Various articles are published in related magazines and internet sites. He also has made presentations in more than 27 international seminars on the subjects of homeland security and industrial security.

He is astute security consultant with in-depth knowledge of best practices and the technologies suitable to specific needs. His cost-effective security solutions are found to be pragmatic and helpful in loss prevention. His ‘out-of-the-box’ approaches have been path-breaking in modeling new concepts in security management. He has co-authored best-selling book – “Industrial Security: Management & Strategies”. Both as ‘thought leader’ and outstanding professional, Capt Tyagi is well recognized world over for his achievements.

He is Co-founder and Chief Councilor of International Council For Security & Safety Management. 

The Global Threat of Terrorism Targeting Oil and Gas Industries

‘Energy security is among the most serious security and economic challenges, both today and in the future. As the economies of the World grow and societies develop, so does the importance of energy. And so does the importance of the infrastructures that produce and supply this energy’. This brings Oil & Gas Sector under sharp focus!

Terrorist organizations have always been interested in targeting oil and gas facilities. Striking pipelines, tankers, refineries and oil fields accomplishes two desired goals: undermining the internal stability of the regimes they are fighting, and economically weakening foreign powers with vested interests in their region. In the past decade alone, there have been scores of attacks against oil targets primarily in the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. These attacks have never received much attention and have been treated as part of the ‘industry’s risk.’

As long ago as 2004 an Al Qaeda manifesto set out “laws” of targeting petroleum-related interests, pertaining to the “economic Jihad” with one of the primary targets being pipelines and supporting facilities and especially industry personnel “the easiest targets to attack and offer the greatest reward”. The threats from terrorism to energy critical infrastructure exist for all to see, if they are willing to see that is, and that these so-call wicked risks are not going to diminish any time soon.

Today, a growing number of interconnected and diverse threats, mainly physical and cyber threats are challenging critical infrastructures. In that regard, terrorist threat is not a new phenomenon and critical infrastructures have long been attractive targets for terrorist groups and malicious acts. Especially, as being one of the most vulnerable sectors, Critical Energy Infrastructures have been subjected to increasing terrorist threat which is correlated with the growing political and economic instability in oil and gas producing regions. Furthermore, despite its enormous economic and political consequences, unlike other types of terrorism, energy terrorism could not attract a significant level of attention.

According to the University of Maryland’s Global Terrorism Database, terrorist threats targeting oil and gas sectors have risen sharply. More precisely, during the mid-1990’s, attacks on oil and installations reflected less than 2.5 of all attacks whereas in 2013, 600 out of 2600 total terror attacks targeted oil and gas sectors.(1) In fact, a wide majority of attacks concentrates in the Middle East and North Africa. However, from U.S to China, energy infrastructures are facing a varying level of threat (from theft to sabotage) which means that energy facilities worldwide have common vulnerabilities including inadequate controls at the borders; lack of a holistic security approach; lack of technology and lack of dedicated security forces etc. (2)

Examining this trend more closely it can be seen that in 2003 roughly 25% of terrorist attacks were aimed at the energy sector, having jumped to 30% and 35% between 2003 and 2007 –the long-term trend revealing more attacks aimed at energy infrastructure (EI) occurring annually–. With oil accounting for nearly ‘40% of the world’s energy and 96% of its transportation’, the protection of energy infrastructure has thus become a top priority for most industrialised nations. (3)

The Threats over the Sea:

There is growing evidence that terrorists find the un-policed sea to be their preferred domain of operation. Today, over 60% of the world’s oil is shipped on 3,500 tankers through a small number of ‘chokepoints’ – straits and channels narrow enough to be blocked, and vulnerable to piracy and terrorism. The most important chokepoints are the Strait of Hormuz, through which 13 million barrels of oil are moved daily, Bab el-Mandab, which connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea, and the Strait of Malacca, between Indonesia and Malaysia. Thirty percent of the world’s trade and 80% of Japan’s crude oil passes through the latter, including half of all sea shipments of oil bound for East Asia and two-thirds of global liquefied natural gas shipments. (4)

Pipeline sabotage is terrorist’s favorite  

Until recently, the pipeline industry has been preoccupied primarily with environmental, safety and maintenance issues. Beyond occasional cases of vandalism, the human factor was hardly perceived as a threat to the world’s vast web of oil and gas pipelines, which, all told, carry roughly half of the world’s oil and most of its natural gas.

Weapon of Choice

Pipelines, through which about 40% of world’s oil flows, are another Achilles heel! They run over thousands of miles and across some of the most volatile areas in the world. Pipelines are also very easily sabotaged. A simple explosive device can put a critical section of pipeline out of operation for weeks. This is why pipeline sabotage has become the weapon of choice of the insurgents in Iraq. An attack on major oil installation, a chokepoint or a pipeline hub would be detrimental to any country’s economy and likely to affect every aspect of lives of its citizens.

Petrochemical complexes and Oil installations on the hand are highly critical, highly vulnerable and sabotage and terrorist attack is highly provable. This makes them also very attractive target with high “Terror Quotient” as damages here are likely to the lives and economy! The new breed of terrorists inspired or encouraged by ISIS will have knowledge of oil and gas installations operation and maintenance details and also would understand the vulnerabilities. Thus with more informed new breed of terrorists, world will see the renewed threats to this sector.

Threat Mitigation Philosophy

The only effective counter is through a
• Joint approach, incorporating whole-of-government and the energy operating companies.
• An approach that is at once –

o pro-active and robust (has authority and acts),
o builds resilience and recovery into its plans,
o is coordinated,
o cooperates in that both parties come out of their respective siloes and cultivate a                    Need-to-Share mind-set to information and intelligence rather than the traditional              Need-to-Know model; and
o allocates the necessary funding, training and resources (dedicated specialist response            force) to be effective at deterring, detecting,

Security Solutions

The existing passive model of risk management, normally utilised by the industry to mitigate safety, criminal, or environmental risks through weighing probability and impact is of little use in predicting wicked risks, whose probability cannot be assessed (not quantifiable or insufficient statistical data) and whose impact can be catastrophic and far reaching both economically and socially. Typically, these risks have the characteristics of being unexpected and did not feature on risk assessments and planning; they were different than anticipated; were unpredictable in location, scope and impact; and can overwhelm the capacity to respond and deal with it immediately. The only effective counter is through a joint approach, incorporating whole-of-government and the energy operating companies.

With the threat of terrorism looming, pipeline operators in the industrialized world have taken action to prevent terrorism from harming energy infrastructure with steps that include:

  • Increasing system redundancy,
  • Deploying state-of-the-art surveillance equipment,
  • Deploying aerial and ground patrols, and
  • Fortifying pipeline systems against cyber-security breaches

‘Lessons learned from accidents and safety incidents have been regrettable but they are critical contributions to instil safety in the DNA and operating culture of any prudent oil and gas operator.’ In other words, it could be said that in order to implement and exercise best security practices for the energy industry, lessons learned from previous incidents should be well understood.

Numbers of best practices could be recommended for the Oil & Gas Sector –

  • ‘Security’ should be considered and studied as an independent and distinct discipline from ‘Safety’ and it should be defined with clear objectives.
  • Establishing proper mechanisms for ‘Intelligence’ and ‘Information Sharing’ is critical for assessing terrorism risks for a critical infrastructure. For instance, in order to eliminate insider threat and reach deeper information about their employees, companies could cooperate with state agencies in information sharing.
  • A holistic and integrated security approach seems as a must in implementing corporate security policies.

Developing alternative ‘threat scenarios’ with various inputs and outputs is an essential part for a company’s security plans. In other words, security departments should be capable to answer ‘what if’ questions regarding the changing conjuncture and threat and risk levels.

Conclusion

Terrorist attacks carried out by radical Islamist groups within the EU’s borders are a concern and measures to prevent future catastrophic attacks must continue. However, as North Africa becomes a more significant supplier of energy to Western Europe, threats to the energy infrastructure in the region must also be considered.
Attacks or threats against energy infrastructures can lead to uncertainty amongst market players and overall insecurity, thereby raising global energy costs and placing additional budgetary pressures on states and consumers. To counter this trend and the inflexibility of the current energy environment, states need to adopt a multifaceted approach.

  • 1) Energy Policy Information Center, ‘The Growing Connection between Oil and Terror’, 04.09.2014
  • 2) 2)Balaji Srimoolanathan, ‘Adopting a Holistic Approach to Protecting Critical Infrastructure’, 18.06.2014
  • 3) G. Luft (2005), ‘Pipeline Sabotage is Terrorist’s Weapon of Choice’, Institute for Analysis of Global Security (IAGS) Energy Security, 25/III/2005, http://www.iags.org/n0328051.htm
  • 4) Terror’s next target, By Gal Luft and Anne Korin, The Journal of International Security Affairs, December 2003.

Constraints and challenges for Transnational Pipeline Projects

“Energy Security” of a Nation

Global energy demand is expected to rise by as much as 50 percent over the next 25 years. This combined with depletion of existing oil and gas reserves will mean extensive exploration and production activities by the oil and gas industry in the years to come. 75 percent of this increased requirement is expected to come from the developing world.

In the backdrop of above, the importance of energy from oil and gas assets can be summarized by quoting the Indian Prime Minister –

“Energy is the lifeblood of our economy. Without sufficient and predictable access, our aspirations in the social sector cannot be realized…. I believe that the needs of the people of India must become the central agenda for our international cooperation and so must our concern for energy security.”

What can legitimately be described as “Energy Security” of a nation? A 1999 UNDP report defined Energy Security as the continuous availability of energy in varied forms in sufficient quantities at reasonable prices.

In India, the Parikh Committee report stated that, “a country is energy secure when it can supply energy to all its citizens and meet their demand for safe and convenient energy at affordable costs at all times with a prescribed confidence level considering shocks and disruptions that can be expected”.

Nation’s aspirations to develop and progress will remain unfulfilled without energy. The Energy Security Energy Security will guarantee to strengthen national economy and defense preparedness. It calls for continuous availability of energy in varied forms in sufficient quantity. It require following steps:

  • An elaborate distribution network for domestic supplies
  • To grow our energy supply in an environmentally responsible manneredmontonterminal_705

 How to ensure Energy Security for a Nation

Energy security consideration for a nation will require following steps:

  • Ensuring availability of energy sources through domestic efforts or through long term supply agreements or through buying assets abroad;
  • An elaborate distribution network for domestic supplies;
  • Development of infrastructure to cope with the growing demand in terms of storage, import terminals etc;
  • To grow our energy supply in an environmentally responsible manner;
  • Above all, institutional and policy mechanisms to ensure an equitable supply of energy both in terms of reaching underdeveloped regions and in terms of the economically backward sections of the Indian society.

Energy Security & Security of Oil, Gas & Pipeline Assets 

Country’s energy security is directly related to security of its Oil, Gas and Pipeline assets. Every step needs to be taken to ensure uninterrupted production; processing and protection of supply chain in this sector which can be termed is ‘Key-infrastructure Sector’ for country’s steady growth, sound economy and sustainable energy independence.

Security provides oil and gas companies the freedom to find, develop and manage assets and to deliver supplies without interference. Being ‘secured’ stems from having the correct strategy which is translated through innovative technology into a robust implementation supported by rigorous system’s management. While ensuring availability of energy sources becomes prime concern of the Nation, securing its Oil, Gas and Pipeline assets become prime responsibility of all stake-holders.

Why Transnational Pipeline Projects

Why two or more countries would agree to have trans-national pipelines? This would find answer in following key-considerations for such projects –

  • Some one’s waste is other’s raw material – it makes commercial sense.
  • Clean and cheap fuel – reduces carbon foot-prints.
  • Ensures energy security of Nation.
  • Demand & Supply Imbalance – results in increased import – pipeline being safest and cheapest mode of transportation.
  • Links progress and development – ‘have-not’ draw immense socio-economic benefits.
  • Socio-political reasons – regional power balance and political considerations decide the participating Nation’s stake in the joint venture.
  • Economic well-being – since products transported though trans-national pipelines are used for energy, power generations, besides used as raw-material for fertilizers and petroleum products, such projects improve economic well-being of end-user country.
  • Ethnic aspirations – chances of ethnic, religious and cultural aspirations and well-being increase as it brings industrial development, employments and

Challenges for Planners, Bad Dreams for Security Managers

Past incidents

Mexican oil, gas pipelines attacked – Leftist guerrillas claim responsibility for the bombings. Officials move to boost security at key installations- July 11, 2007: A leftist guerrilla group claimed responsibility for a series of bombings of pipelines operated by Pemex, Mexico’s national oil company, and authorities moved quickly to protect the nation’s oil and gas industry from further attackshttp://articles.latimes.com/2007

Turkey pipeline blast rekindles security concerns – Los Angeles, 7 Nov. 2008 — Oil has resumed flowing through one of the twin Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipelines following an explosion on one of the lines near the town of Bozova, in the mainly Kurdish province of Sanliurfa in southeastern Turkey. http://www.ogj.com/display_article

Planning Challenges

  •  Pipeline projects are riddled with problems. Geo-political situations across nations pose a major hindrance in pipeline projects
  • No overarching legal regime that can be used to resolve differences between nations and regulate activities and contracts
  • Clear distinction between the oil and gas market because unlike the oil market, the gas market is more disaggregated and there are no benchmarks for gas and prices
  • allow host countries to make ad hoc changes in gas pricing (example of IPI)
  • Conflicts and impediments in transcontinental projects are result of politics due to or in the absence of legal and regulatory regimes
  • Co-operation hindered by competition and mistrust
  • Tariff monitoring and price volatility – Issues relating to pricing and the geo-politics of the pipeline in general poses as impediment
  • Multi-dimensional set of policy responses
  • implementation of rules embedded in multilateral agreements in the 1994 General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade( GATT) under WTO or the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT)

 Why Oil, Gas & Pipeline Assets’ security?

  • LPG & Natural gas pipelines are treated as utility services,
  • Constitute National Infrastructure sector
  • Life Line of the Nations,
  • Have Destruction capabilities
  • Loss of business to the company – tangible & intangible
  • Measure of Security = Vulnerability X Probability X Criticality

Challenges for Planning & Execution

Conflicts and impediments in transcontinental projects are more often the result of politics due to or in the absence of legal and regulatory regimes. There is no overarching legal regime that can be used to resolve differences between nations and regulate activities and contracts. The problems relating to terrain can be overcome but the geo-political situations across nations still pose a major hindrance in pipeline projects. [1]

  • Selection of trans-national suitable route agreed by all stake holding Nations,
  • Natural / anthropogenic constraints
  • Socio-political and local law-and-order issues
  • Sovereign guarantees and discharge of contractual obligations
  • Mobilization and protection of seismic / geological survey parties and inventories
  • Common operational frame-work, time management and activity coordination
  • Stringing, Cabling, trenching and lowering of line pipes
  • Setting early collection / dispatch facilitiespipelines-banner

Post-commissioning Security Considerations 

  • Pumps & Control Systems
  • Buried Pipelines / Aboveground Pipelines – surveillance and monitoring
  • Sectionalizing / Isolation Valves – Manually, Remotely or Automatically Operated
  • Relief valves – Thermal or other types
  • Pipe-bridges or other Supports
  • Cased Sleeves under Roadways or Rail lines
  • Leak Detection Systems
  • River / Road Crossings  – exposures and wash-outs
  • Pig Launchers / Receivers – transportation and operations
  • Cathodic Protection System – regular monitoring and maintenance 

Major Areas of Security Concerns

The production of Oil and Gas is a major logistical operation from locating and investigating new sites to the movement of personnel and establishment of facilities. It takes an enormous amount of resources to establish such sites and all the operators have to rely on a sound cloak of security to prevent theft of equipment, extortion, sabotage and kidnapping of work force. There are following major areas of security concerns –

  • Security of geological survey party, their equipments and explosives
  • Land acquisition and establishing camp sites
  • Pre-camp armed – static security
  • Security during movement of drilling equipments and personnel
  • Executive and employees travel protection
  • Transportation – armed security (rail, air & sea)
  • Commencement of drilling / pipeline laying activities
  • Establishing early oil / gas collection centers and security thereof
  • Security of off-shore platforms, receiving terminals, dispatch terminals, compressor stations etc.
  • Security of larger installations such as refineries, LPG plants and petrochemical complexes
  • Security of supply chain – storage / warehouse, rail / road transportation
  • Intelligence gathering and disaster planning
  • Constitution of Emergency Response Teams

For the Key Infrastructures such as Oil and Gas, security is always a major concern as this sector world over has high probability and vulnerability from terrorist attacks and sabotage. [2] Their operations also have high criticality. Following are the specifics of the security management of this sector –

Security of Pipeline Installations

Examples of recent attacks on oil pipelines and offshore oilrigs have included those carried out in Nigeria, Columbia, and the facilities of ExxonMobil in the Aceh region of Northern Indonesia. Though the number of such attacks has considerably dropped from 200 to 45 last year, there still lurk the threats to numerous oil rigs, supply depots and refineries as well as loading terminals; further demanding a deeper insight on measures for enhancing security and safeguarding the larger oil infrastructures.

Another aspect that “has made offshore oil-rigs or oil platforms all the more vulnerable is their potential target value for terrorism-for-profit, rather than terrorism-for-political ends, as the majority of the world would like to believe.”                                           http://www.primedefence.com

This phenomenon can be observed in the countries of Angola, Gabon and The Ivory Coast and though of lesser significance; in South Africa as well. With concerns for profit rather than politic motives becoming common, and the popularity of networks such as the Al-Qaeda, there is now a much more likely chance that this phenomenon will spread in other regions of the world. [2]

Off-shore platforms are highly vulnerable, high risk installations having high probability of attacks of terrorist which may be equipped with some of the best technical capabilities. Somalian sea-pirates have well demonstrated that now-a-days any one can get any thing provided they have sufficient funds! It is therefore very important that beside sturdy infrastructure security and the security risk management mechanism including airborne, maritime and ground surveillance, these platforms have very reliable and impregnable communication and cyber security measures. Tracking and positioning of manpower and material is equally important.

To devise an action plan to combat attacks on its offshore installations. Potential terrorist-related crisis situations should be incorporated in the CMP (Crisis Management Plan) along with the response mechanisms/capacity building required to handle such situations. Vessel Automatic Tracking and Monitoring System for the security of large oil infrastructures in high sea areas assume greater importance to rule out attack capabilities of Somalian like out-fits which might draw their attention to the vulnerabilities of these assets.

Strategies for Reliable Security of Oil & Gas Assets

The Operations, Safety, Security, and IT decision-makers of the Oil & Gas industry are well advised to pay attantion to following aspects –

Optimising Assets through Centralised Command & Control

Integrated command and control systems must be positioned to provide an integrated solution, which captures and validates data that can be used throughout the organisation during normal operation, whilst providing relevant, useful information in difficult and emergency situations.  This approach will enable operators of critical national infrastructure to optimise their assets whilst maintaining their investment in legacy systems.   New developments in technology can improve the security of personnel and assets and provide enhanced operational capabilities.

Securing Oil & Gas Control Systems

More and more reliability on Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) and Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN) brings increased threats to operations of organizations using them. The networks are suseptible to attacks aimed to disrupt and destroy them. Such an attack by viruses, worms or other forms of cyber-terrorism on oil and gas industry process control networks and related systems could destabilize energy industry supply capabilities and negatively impact the national economy.

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (USA) has served as the lead national lab in Project LOGIIC (Linking the Oil and Gas Industry to Improve Cyber Security). The project was created to keep U.S. oil and gas control systems safe and secure, and to help minimize the chance that a cyber attack could severely damage or cripple oil and gas infrastructures. It works to identify ways to reduce cyber vulnerabilities in process control and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems). The goal of the project was to identify new types of security sensors for process control networks. Sandia worked with project partners to create a simulation test bed and apply this environment to counter potential threats to the oil and gas industry using hypothetical attack scenarios. Sandia researchers created two real-time models of control systems used for refinery and pipeline operations. The trials have come out with very encouraging results and technology is ready for deployment.

Biometric Integrated Safe System of Work

Integrated Safe System of Work (ISSoW) is a key tool in ensuring the safe operation of Oil and Gas installations. However, such systems can only be truly effective if user identities can be quickly validated and definitively authenticated. For this to be implemented in practice in providing advanced authentication and identity management, the biometrics based access contrpol solutions are found to be very reliable.   There are many solutions aviable solution where worker identities can be positively and accurately registered, identified and managed securely throughout their lifecycle.

High Accuracy Real Time Personnel & Asset Location

There is need to have a system that improves the safety of workers in hazardous environments and helps to improve the effectiveness of emergency response measures.  There are systems availble which can locate an individual, or asset, to within 1 metre in 3D (e.g. in a multi-storey/multi-level facility) and it can do this up to 1km from a base station. The system provides a position update every second and, for example, could be used to track a lone worker or road tanker’s progress through a plant or ensure that personnel are moving towards the correct muster points in an emergency. Such system do not not require large amount of infrastructure or extensive cabling and is therefore easily installed in an existing plant at minimal cost.

Situational Awareness – Securely Integrating Site Data

This aspect deals with the need to simply and securely integrate data from a wide variety of systems to show site leaders and managers the overall condition of their site – and what is happening on it. This capability brings together data from operational, security and work management systems and merges this private data with public information from the internet to provide a complete picture. By using an underlying open data architecture together with  security protection system, it can bring these data sources together and share them securely among multiple disparate user groups, and at different locations, whilst ensuring data validity, security, and privacy.  As well as the complete picture, it can also provide custom views for users such as maintenance teams, emergency services and even the media and general public in the event of a major incident.

Upstream Collaboration

pipeline-1Collaborative working can generate significant benefits to improve time to market, reduce risk and increase productivity with the upstream energy business. It allows any combination of knowledge workers on and offshore, the ability to collaborate on any document or application with video anywhere in the world. [3]

A true collaboration environment seeks to make decisions and resolve issues faster. It allows plant engineers to share photo evidence and discuss issues with the head office, risk management office to comply with HSE requirements; Upstream exploration processes linking a remote geological survey unit to share seismic data and structure a next stage of exploration programme; and plant design and build to allow large scale programmes to collaborate on critical design and project build processes with all parties, creating an effective way of delivering complex projects. [4]

Communication Technology: Legacy v/s Ethernet

Everyone is trying to monitor and control remote assets without sending personnel out to distant locations. It’s expensive to send someone on a three to four-hours’ drive several times a day to check an oil-well. People want to get the same benefits without leaving the office, and Ethernet technology allows personnel to be virtually on location [5]. Processes can be started and stopped, gas production levels can be monitored, and tank levels can be checked, just as if someone were physically at the location of the asset. Radio is the key that allows us to create a link in the office and do all this.

After investing millions in legacy serial communications systems – and in many cases, millions more in older SCADA RTUs (Remote Terminal Units) and EFMs (Electric Flow Meters) — many oil and gas producers are in a fix? Because they are now being driven by IT to convert these systems to Ethernet! The benefits of Ethernet usually make it worthwhile. The first advantage is that people have been using licensed radios in the oil and gas industry for almost 20 years, and the frequency allocations are pretty well used up in areas where there’s a large oil and gas production. New frequencies just aren’t available. [6]

“With spread-spectrum radios, we now have the ability to put in radio systems that don’t need licenses. And with some of the newer products, there are new allocations of frequency, so we’ve opened up a new world for people to purchase a license and have their own dedicated frequency. In addition, Ethernet allows producers to easily manage remote assets.”

-Jim Gardner, Business Development Manager of Oil and Gas for                                                                              FreeWave Technologies, a manufacturer of 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz                                                                                         license-free spread spectrum radio modems and licensed-band radio products.

Security is one of the best reasons to make the switch. Serial radios can’t provide all the security features of Ethernet. One can supplement serial to get certain levels of security, but it is still not as secure as Ethernet. With Ethernet technology, the radios themselves become individually addressable, and you know that you are talking only to that radio. You can also create a “white list” or “black list.” The white list would include TCP addresses that are authenticated on the system and are permitted to talk. This prevents someone from finding or stealing a radio and talking with a major oil company’s network. Users have to be authenticated or the system won’t respond. This feature makes it very useful for police and law enforcing agencies as this enables their communication highly secure compared to conventional radio communication.

Robust, Secure, Global Communication Solutions

This capability calls for seamlessly connecting all oil & gas installations of an organization and on more higher level , of the Nation by providing highly available, robust, secure, integrated communication networks for critical operational systems.  A number of communication solutions are available which provide robust connectivity and communication helpful for protection of assets and personnel in environments where a high standard of inherent safety is a mandatory requirement. There are resilient telecommunications networks such as Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN), which allow for simultaneous voice & data communications and secure access to applications from almost anywhere in the world [7]. 

While above are the main strategies for securing the trans-national oil and gas pipelines assets, constant improvement and improvisation need to be esi-blue-sky-pipelinescarried out to make security measures reliable as well as  cost effective, as in present phase of economic melt-down no organization will take decision with out working out the ROI (Return on investment). Dedicated manpower ready to face the disaster would always be central consideration for any security and disaster response plan and needs to be embraced by the partner Nations. To keep the involved manpower constantly motivated and updated is also another prime responsibility of the Managements of partner companies of involved Nations as otherwise even the best plans are doomed to fail! Only those will succeed in this type of multinational venture who foresee and fore-plan and rehearse thereafter their security and emergency response plans!

Reference:

 Why Transnational Energy Pipelines Remain Pipedreams in South Asia – http://www.idsa.in/event/WhyTransnationalEnergyPipelinesRemainPipedreamsinSouthAsia.html

  1. Energy policy and cooperation in Southeast Asia: The history, challenges, and implications of the trans-ASEAN gas pipeline (TAGP) network – http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421509000846
  2. The Iran–Pakistan–India Natural Gas Pipeline: Implications and Challenges for Regional Security – http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09700160903354815#.VCT2WmeSySo
  3. European Union energy security: the challenges of liberalization in a risk -prone international environment Society – http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/78/71/23/PDF/Clastres-Locatelli-EEM12.pdf
  4. 2014 Data Breach Investigations Report -Energy And Utilities – http://www.verizonenterprise.com/resources/factsheets/fs_2014-dbir-industries-energy-and-utilities-threat-landscape_en_xg.pdf
  5. Energy and Utilities Solutions – http://www.verizonenterprise.com/industry/utility/remote-monitoring/
  6. Broadband Global Area Network & voice and broadband data communications –http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadband_Global_Area_Network and http://www.inmarsat.com/service/bgan/

Is it smooth transition for man of uniform to become security professional?

1355906312The day General Sahib (Director General or Inspector General in Police and Lt. General or Major General in Army) hangs his boots, his safari suit, neatly pressed and waiting for the occasion is ceremoniously taken out from the cupboard. Along comes out the ivory coloured visiting card printed in advance declaring to the world that the worthy of the name printed on the card is ‘The Security Expert and Consultant’!

Those who come out of police and armed force background think themselves to be self-styled expert in industrial security and feel to be natural choice for the jobs in the field. Such are their notions and nuances that they ‘know-all and have done-all’ and there is nothing new for them to learn!

Are they natural choice for career in the present field of industrial security?

  • Do they really know-all and require no training or experience?
  • Do they have right attitude and aptitude for the new career?
  • Are they not travelling with heavy baggage and
  • Are they not needed to unlearn many things before they learn skills of new jobs?

SP Singh:  it is indeed fact that the officers in transition have a preconceived idea of the industry and want to implement all what they have learnt or experienced in the forces in the new field may it be applicable or not, they have to also understand the dimensions of labour unions the staff associations and the fact of refusal or modulation of orders and instructions each profession or to say each company and profile has a unique style of working and challenges there is not a single straight jacket formula which may be implemented in the transition the only mantra is to learn and understand the new skills.

Capt Percy Jokhi, CPP, CFE, MAM, LLB: The industry does make a high mistake by thinking that a services / police officer is good mainly for security in the corporate sector, but nothing is further from the truth.

Both need different skill sets, having said the same, if they can carry the relevant advantages of discipline, knowledge of certain aspects, they have an advantage but it ends there. The bigger mistake is to think that the more senior he has been in uniform the better he will be in civil – this is a disaster waiting to happen!!! Officers need to leave their rank and ego behind, if they do that success is a begging. Accept the culture and the facts and move on to greater success. We are known to be adaptable! Use that skill even when changing fields and the Uniform for the Suit.

Mr. Suresh Mandan said that, “Yes it is a fact that for security services they are a natural choice but many of themselves do not like to be tagged (characterised) like this. When I came to USA with a background from Intelligence, I thought I would be very good in this field here. But I was wrong because security is a different ball game here and elsewhere too. It hurts our ego sometimes but it is a fact that we should try to become subalterns after retirement. But do you think the Government, its and the Corporate Sector realise this. They have already tagged everything on the basis of past experience!”

I am of the firm view that every profession has its own skill sets and need for special attitude and aptitude. Policing is very different then the Industrial security and experience in armed forces doesn’t prepare anyone for career in the field of industrial security.

Right after retiring or release from police, CPOs and armed forces, the officers are conventionally thought to be made for security duties! Nothing can be farther from truth than this. Since DGR routinely recommended EC / SS and retired officer for career in security field mainly due to lack of their education or lack of experience in other careers, the security field was the only option given to these officers who willy-nilly accepted them for want of other offers or options for rehabilitation. This gives false notions to the recruiters that such officers willingly take these career options and are naturally suitable for the same.

To some limited extent the lower and middle level police officers have right exposure for crime and loss-prevention which are few core duties of security professionals. Senior level police officers’ grooming and skill development make them good for boundary management and liaison – again two of the many duties security professional need to perform. One thing needs to be remembered here that the officers from police and armed force background need to unlearn lot many things from their past careers before they set to learn new things.

Mr. Suresh Mandan says that, “the subject is thought provoking particularly for those coming from uniformed services or Intelligence/Investigations. Every field has its own art and experiences. Yes Officers from the Armed/Police Services should re-learn some of the security drill in the new field of security today. He would prove to be more useful with background and additional learning”.

What they have to re-learn? First and foremost is that rank and metal parts on their past uniform would have no significance in civil life. In most of the cases where such officers were unable to re-adjust the reason was their reluctance to serve under the officers from similar background and with lower rank even when high in position in present civil organizational hierarchy. It is therefore very true when Col Satendra Kumar, CPO, CPO (I) opines that “EGO is very difficult to be shed. Ego comes in the way of transition. Exceptions are always there in every field including Army”.
I have personally experienced that few brigadiers called my two juniors with civil background as ‘Sirs’ but tried to treat me merely as ‘Captain’ only! One of them even questioned one seminar organizer as to how a Captain’s name is above the name of a ‘Brigadier’? Obviously he failed to forget his past rank and also failed to connect to current reality! Col Pradeep Dalvi has said that, “we need to understand that service life and civil corporate security is totally different ball game! Rank has NO status here but experience does”.

I readily hand out that the officers from police and armed force background have the right aptitude and bit of recalibration on attitude is needed. Thereafter –

  • They understand that service life and civil corporate security is totally different.
  • They must remember that ego comes in the way of transition.
  • The bigger mistake is to think that the more senior he has been in uniform the better he will be in civil.
  • They need to acquire new skill sets and new approach to life and people.
  • Officers from the Armed/Police Services should re-learn some of the security drill in the new field of security today.
  • They need to develop soft skills in as much as that they need to control the tense situations, flying tempers and arrogant people with very cool temperament.
  • They need to assimilate the divergent ideologies and regulate opposite thoughts and ideas to maintain cordial industrial relations.
  • At floor-shop level they as security professionals need to move and interact with workers and their persona needs to be friendly and willing to listen to their problems and capable to offer them solutions.

International Council of Security and Safety Management (ICISSM) is purely non-commercial forum without any support from any business groups or projected by any business house in the background. All its members have no stake in any solution providing or consultancy firms. Their association with ICISS is totally based on mutual benefit of knowledge sharing and networking. We welcome all the security and safety professional world over from diverse background and encourage them to interact freely by asking the questions, replying them or by sharing their knowledge and experience. The council also strives to have strategic alliances with similar forums world over for furtherance of its objectives. Formed in 2010, the Council is totally aprtisan, apolitical and does not represent any pressure group or interest group. We strive not to provide surrogate platform for anyone to enhance their respective business interest. It is thus totally professionals’ body aimed at, ‘professionalizing the professionals’!

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